فارماکولوژی و سم شناسی پایه ترکیبات موستارد

مصطفی لو, سارا and عبدالهی, محمد (1394) فارماکولوژی و سم شناسی پایه ترکیبات موستارد. در: Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds. Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology . Springer, Switzerland, pp. 49-61. شابک 6-23874-319-3-978


Official URL: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-3...


Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology of Mustard Compounds

English Abstract

Sulfur mustards are well absorbed through inhalational, dermal, and ocular contacts and tend to distribute mostly to the lungs, liver, and kidneys. DNA and protein adducts are the main metabolites of sulfur mustards which are mainly excreted in the urine along with unchanged compounds. Sine nitrogen mustards have never been used as chemical warfare, their kinetic information are mostly related to those which have been used as chemotherapeutic agents. Upon absorption through intravenous or oral administration, nitrogen mustards are rapidly converted to their reactive metabolites and distributed so that the highest concentration can be found in bone marrows. Mono-alkylation of guanine at N7 and then N3 respectively give the main DNA adducts of nitrogen mustards. In an aqueous environment, mustard compounds convert to very active electrophilic metabolites which can attack nucleophilic groups in the structure of cellular macromolecules. DNA alkylation is known as the main mechanism by which mustard compounds exert their both toxic and therapeutic effects. They can also alkylate other nucleophils, most notably thiol groups in the structure of proteins, leading to excessive production of reactive oxygen species in the cell. Following the disruption of such functional macromolecules, a series of maladaptive responses are activated, including excessive production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines, metabolic imbalance in energy production, elevated release of calcium into the cytosol from intracellular and extracellular sources, and consequently the expression of enzymes involved in necrotic or apoptotic cell death pathways.

Item Type:Book Section
زبان سند : انگلیسی
نویسنده اول :سارا مصطفی لو
نویسنده مسئول :محمد عبدالهی
Uncontrolled Keywords:موستارد، سولفور موستارد، نیتروژن موستارد، سم شناسی
کلیدواژه ها (انگلیسی):Mustard, Sulfur Mustard, Nitrogen Mustard, Toxicology
Subjects:QV pharmacology > QV 600 Toxicology
QV pharmacology
Divisions:School of Pharmacy > Department of Toxicology
ID Code:7258
Deposited By: Dr Sara Mostafalou
Deposited On:16 Oct 1394 09:51
Last Modified:16 Oct 1394 10:01

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